Cet article amorce une synthèse d'une réalité physique éprouvante et incertaine pour les Islandais qui étaient éprouvés par un climat subarctique et dont la vie connaissait des passages très difficiles favorisant l'apparition de pathologies diverses :
Results suggest that the inhabitants of Keldudalur experienced periodic stress and rigorous living conditions. Infant mortality was great, although if individuals survived childhood, the age expectancy was fairly high. There was no obvious evidence for interpersonal violence or endemic infectious disease. However, the common occurrence of growth disturbances, generalised periostitis, trauma and degenerative joint disease all point to a number of stressors in the lives of the people at Keldudalur, which is suggestive of a resilient people living and adapting to a harsh and periodically resource scarce subarctic environment. “The risks of seasonal unpredictability, food shortages, exposure to pathogens and strenuous activities facing the early settlers and subsequent generations of Icelanders provide us with an opportunity to see how people did or did not adapt or adjust to their changing environments, writes the authors.